Hydro-Electric (Hydel) Energy

Designing of a Micro Hydro Power Plant on Ghazi Barotha Channel

Outline

Introduction

Site Selection and Assessment

Location and Topography

Hydrology and Flow Rate

Load Requirements

Environmental Factors

Intake Design

Intake Type and Position

Headrace Canal

De-silting Basin

Turbine and Generator Selection

Estimating Head and Flow Rate

Turbine Types

Generator Sizing

Powerhouse Design and Equipment

Powerhouse Structure

Turbine Deployment

Auxiliary Electrical Systems

Transmission and Distribution

Station Transformer

Transmission Lines

Monitoring and Metering

Conclusion

FAQs

Designing of a Micro Hydro Power Plant on Ghazi Barotha Channel

Introduction

Pakistan is currently facing a severe and multifaceted energy crisis. Due to socio-political issues, the government strives to install small hydropower stations. Ghazi Brotha served as a possible channel to design a micro hydro system. The Project explores how the electric power potential of the Ghazi brotha channel can be tapped and effectively supplied to the consumer. The power Potential of the Ghazi Brotha channel is explored as the first step. Since power varies at the different locations of the channel, it is considered an effective way of tapping. The Turbines are placed at the requisite locations in the software.

Cascading of the turbines to get productive output from the channel is performed. A Microgrid is used to amass the power produced by the Project. This Microgrid can supply energy to the primary grid or break off and function independently. That’s how we can generate electricity from the Ghazi Brotha channel and add to the already struggling numbers of the country’s energy Production.

Pakistan has tremendous potential for hydropower development to sustainably meet its growing energy needs. The Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project provides an excellent opportunity to design an additional micro hydro power plant by utilizing the flowing water on its channel system. This article outlines key aspects in designing a micro hydro plant for the Ghazi Barotha channel to provide clean electricity to local communities.

Site Selection and Assessment

Determining an appropriate plant location along the channel requires evaluating the following:

Location and Topography

Siting near villages while leveraging sufficient hydraulic heads for power generation.

Hydrology and Flow Rate

Studying historic flows ensures adequate water supply to meet power output goals.

Load Requirements

Estimating local electricity demand and growth allows proper sizing of the plant.

Environmental Factors

Assessing and minimizing ecosystem impacts through proper hydrologic studies.

Intake Design

The water intake system requires:

Intake Type and Position

Designing a suitable intake structure based on channel conditions.

Headrace Canal

Constructing a headrace canal to convey water to the turbine location.

De-silting Basin

Incorporating a de-silting basin to remove sediment before the water reaches the turbine.

Turbine and Generator Selection

The optimal turbine and generator depend on the following:

Estimating Head and Flow Rate

Determining the available head and minimum flow rate at the plant site.

Turbine Types

Selecting suitable turbomachine like Pelton, Turgo, or crossflow turbines based on head and flow parameters.

Generator Sizing

Choosing an appropriately sized generator matches the power output of the turbine.

Powerhouse Design and Equipment

The powerhouse contains:

Powerhouse Structure

A powerhouse designed to withstand water pressures and forces while housing equipment.

Turbine Deployment

Optimally orienting and securing the turbine and nozzle within the powerhouse.

Auxiliary Electrical Systems

Installing switchgear, controls, and monitoring systems for plant operation.

Transmission and Distribution

The generated power must be:

Station Transformer

Stepped up to distribution voltage levels using a station transformer.

Transmission Lines

Transported via overhead transmission lines to villages and settlements.

Monitoring and Metering

Measured and monitored for grid integration and revenue purposes.

Conclusion

The Ghazi Barotha channel provides an excellent opportunity for adding micro-hydro generation to meet local renewable power needs. Careful site studies and optimal equipment selection can lead to an efficiently designed and economically viable project.

FAQs

What is the typical size of micro hydro plants?

Micro-hydro plants generally have a power generating capacity between 5 kW to 100 kW.

What types of turbines are used in micro hydro plants?

Crossflow turbines are common, but Francis, Pelton, and Turgo turbines also see micro hydro applications.

What is the role of the de-silting basin?

It removes sand, silt, and debris from the water before it enters the turbine to prevent excessive wear.

How long does it take to build a micro hydro plant?

Construction timelines range from a few months to a year or more, depending on size, site access, permitting, and build complexity.

What maintenance is required for micro hydro plants?

Routine maintenance includes lubricating bearings, checking electrical systems, cleaning debris from intakes, and monitoring for wear or fatigue.

MCQs

1. What is a micro hydro power plant?

  • A micro hydro power plant is a small-scale hydroelectric system that generates electricity using the energy from flowing water, typically from a stream or river.

2. What are the key components of a micro hydro power plant?

  • The main components include a water source (stream or river), intake structure, penstock, turbine, generator, control system, and electrical infrastructure.

3. What factors should be considered when designing a micro hydro power plant?

  • Design considerations include the flow rate of water, head (vertical drop), environmental impact, site accessibility, and electrical load requirements.

4. How is the water flow rate determined for micro hydro power plant design?

  • The water flow rate is determined by measuring the stream’s flow using methods like weirs or flow meters or by consulting local hydrological data.

5. What is the significance of the head in micro hydro power plant design?

  • Head refers to the vertical drop of water from the intake to the turbine. It affects the plant’s power generation potential, with a higher head generally leading to higher power output.

6. What types of turbines are commonly used in micro hydropower plants?

  • Common turbine types include Pelton, Francis, and Kaplan turbines, each suited to specific head and flow conditions.

7. How is the size of the micro hydro power plant determined?

  • The size of the plant depends on the available water flow, head, and the electrical load requirements of the intended application.

8. Are permits required for building a micro hydro power plant?

  • Yes, permits and regulatory approvals are often required for environmental and safety reasons. Local authorities and environmental agencies should be consulted.

9. Can a micro hydro power plant be off-grid or grid-connected?

  • Micro-hydro plants can be designed as off-grid systems to power remote areas and grid-connected systems to sell excess power to the grid.

10. What maintenance is required for a micro hydro power plant?

- Regular maintenance includes cleaning the intake, inspecting and lubricating machinery, and monitoring electrical components for optimal performance.

11. Is there an environmental impact associated with microhydropower plants?

- Proper planning and design can minimize environmental impact. However, it's crucial to assess potential effects on aquatic life and ecosystems.

12. How do you ensure the safety of a micro hydro power plant?

- Safety measures include fencing off the intake, installing safety guards, following electrical safety standards, and implementing emergency shutdown procedures.

13. Can a micro hydro power plant be used in remote or hilly areas?

- Yes, micro hydro power plants are often used in remote and hilly regions where reliable electricity supply is otherwise challenging to achieve.

14. What is the expected lifespan of a micro hydro power plant?

- With proper maintenance, micro hydro power plants can have a lifespan of several decades.

15. How can I determine the economic viability of a micro hydro power plant?

- Conducting a cost-benefit analysis that considers installation costs, operational expenses, and potential revenue from electricity sales can help assess economic viability. Consulting with experts is also recommended.

Engr. Muhammad Ali Raza

Hello, I'm Engr. Ali Raza, an Electrical Engineering Professional with a passion for innovation and a commitment to excellence. I completed my electrical engineering degree in 2017 and have since been actively engaged in the field, where I've had the opportunity to apply my knowledge and skills to real-world projects. Over the years, I've gained valuable experience in Engineering field, allowing me to contribute effectively to the development and implementation of electrical systems and solutions. I thrive in dynamic and challenging environments, constantly seeking opportunities to expand my expertise and make a meaningful impact in the world of Electrical Engineering.

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